Showing posts with label Amazon. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Amazon. Show all posts

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (JUN 2015)

I started developing this blog more than three years ago. After a bit more than a year, I collected a bunch of the posts, edited them and published them as a book on Amazon. Recently, I logged into my Amazon profile to see how the book was doing, and I was very pleased to notice that there were no less than four reviews of the book, and very positive ones too! Thank you to everyone who read/browsed it.

Blastocystis research is currently a quickly moving field, and I'm please to be able to inform you that one of the most interesting contributions to Blastocystis research coming out from our intstitute has just been published in Fems Microbiology Ecology. The article appearing in this journal was first-authored by PhD student Lee O'Brien Andersen (Statens Serum Institut) and post doc Ida Bonde (Danish Technical University) and describes how Lee and Ida took a retrospective approach to analysing metagenomics data originally generated by the MetaHIT Consortium and published in the often cited paper by Arumugam et al. (2012).

The abstract reads as follows:
Blastocystis is a common single-celled intestinal parasitic genus, comprising several subtypes. Here, we screened data obtained by metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA for Blastocystis by searching for subtype-specific genes in co-abundance gene groups, which are groups of genes that co-vary across a selection of 316 human faecal samples, hence representing genes originating from a single subtype. The 316 faecal samples were from 236 healthy individuals, 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 67 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The prevalence of Blastocystis was 20.3% in the healthy individuals and 14.9% in patients with UC. Meanwhile, Blastocystis was absent in patients with CD. Individuals with intestinal microbiota dominated by Bacteroides were much less prone to having Blastocystis-positive stool (Matthew's correlation coefficient = -0.25, P < 0.0001) than individuals with Ruminococcus- and Prevotella-driven enterotypes. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between Blastocystis and communities of gut bacteria using a metagenomics approach. The study serves as an example of how it is possible to retrospectively investigate microbial eukaryotic communities in the gut using metagenomic datasets targeting the bacterial component of the intestinal microbiome and the interplay between these microbial communities.

As far as we know this is the first study to sift out data on Blastocystis from data originally intended for analysis of bacterial communities only, and in the paper we describe how this was done. We believe that this approach has imminent potential for quickly advancing our knowledge on Blastocystis in a gut ecology context, including knowledge on the role of Blastocystis in terms of impacting/manipulating one or more types of intestinal bacteria.

I have a feeling that this is the first study in a string of similar studies that will soon hit PubMed, and within a year or two, we should be able to with confidence to hypothesise on the relationship between the structure and function on of the gut microbiota and Blastocystis, and–hopefully–other intestinal micro-eukaryotes.

Lastly, it was very interesting to note the article by Paramsothy et al. on donor recruitment for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT; never heard of this? Watch the video below to learn more), recently appearing in the journal Inflammatory Bowel Disease. The study is interesting because it shows that most FMT donors are seemingly ineligible due to a variety of reasons, including colonisation by intestinal parasites such as Blastocystis... Given emerging data suggesting that Blastocystis is more common in healthy invididuals than in patients with gastrointestinal disease, the question remains whether Blastocystis-positivity should be a limiting factor for stool donation?


Andersen LO, Bonde I, Nielsen HB, Stensvold CR. A retrospective metagenomics approach to studying Blastocystis. Published online 30 June 2015. DOI:

Paramsothy S, Borody TJ, Lin E, Finlayson S, Walsh AJ, Samuel D, van den Bogaerde J, Leong RW, Connor S, Ng W, Mitchell HM, Kaakoush N, & Kamm MA (2015). Donor Recruitment for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation. Inflammatory bowel diseases, 21 (7), 1600-6 PMID: 26070003

Sunday, August 24, 2014

This Month in Blastocystis Research (AUG 2014)

Some August highlights in Blastocystis research:

1) The PRE-IOPCA Molecular Parasitology Workshop took place from the 7-10 August at CINVESTAV, Mexico City. Top-motivated students from some 10-15 countries worked hard from 7 am to 7 pm in dry+wet lab sessions, and we all had a really great time, thanks to both participants and fantastic organisers. There was a 4 h session on Blastocystis molecular epidemiology, and I was pleased to learn that some of the participants currently work with (or plan to work with) Blastocystis. I look forward to doing something similar in Ankara, Turkey on the 27th of May next year ( - did you bookmark it?).

Most of the task force of the Molecular Parasitology Workshop (ICOPA 2014).
2) At the actual ICOPA conference, I chaired a session on Blastocystis in the context of IBS, with talks delivered by Ken Boorom, Pablo Maravilla, Pauline Scanlan and myself. In the audience I was honoured to see and meet Dr Hisao Yoshikawa, who has been a main contributor to Blastocystis research over the past 25 years or so (you can look up the publications by Dr Yoshikawa here). Considering the focus of this post, I guess that Pauline's talk was of particular interest, since she presented the data that we just published in FEMS Microbiology and Ecology:

3) The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota. That's the title of the paper appearing in FEMS Microbiology and Ecology. The study, led by Pauline, showed that Blastocystis was present in 56% of 105 healthy adults, which is much higher than previously reported from an industrialised county (Ireland). Moreover, a diversity of different subtypes (species) were detected and Blastocystis was present in a subset of individuals sampled over a period of time between six and ten years, indicating that it is capable of long-term host colonisation. These observations show that Blastocystis is a common and diverse member of the healthy gut microbiota, thereby extending our knowledge of the microbial ecology of the healthy human intestine. And one of the interesting things here is: Why do we see this great divide? Why does half of the population appear colonised while the other half not? What are the factors driving successful Blastocystis colonisation? Would some people be refractory to colonisation or does it really boil down to some sort of enterotype-driven phenomenon as previously indicated?

4) I would like to reiterate the paper by Klimes et al. published a study in Genome Biology and Evolution (GBE) on a striking finding in the Blastocystis nuclear genome. Stop codons created by mRNA polyadenylation have been seen so far in mitochondrial genomes only and not in nuclear genomes; however, the authors observered this feature in Blastocystis's nuclear genome. Partly due to limitations of currently available annotation software, this finding ostensibly calls for reannotation of the genome currently available in GenBank (ST7). The paper was highlighted in a separate article in GBE that can be accessed from here.

5) Speaking of Blastocystis genomes: The genome of Blastocystis ST4 (WR1 strain) is now available on-line and can be accessed here.

6) Wang and colleagues studied the location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine. They studied a total of 28 pigs from a commercial piggery, a small animal farm, and a research facility, and all pigs were positive (for ST5, and mixed subtypes were also seen in some). Post-mortem analyses showed that all pigs were consistently found to harbour Blastocystis in the colon, and approximately 90% of the caeca and rectums examined were positive. Some of the pigs were immunosuppresed (Dexamethasone), and interestingly, Blastocystis was occasionally detected in the small intestine, notably in immunosuppressed pigs, suggesting that immunosuprression may alter host-agent relations and predispose to small intestinal colonisation. Histopathological analysis saw the presence of vacuolar and granular forms of Blastocystis, but there was no evidence of attachment or invasion of the intestinal epithelium. The lack of pathology, including inflammation, epithelial damage, mucosal sloughing, and lamina propria oedema, confirmed the trend from a previous study carried out by Ron Fayer's group (see reference below). The study adds to the string of papers finding no evidence in support for Blastocystis causing primary intestinal damage.

6) Lastly, I want to extend a cordial thank you to Shashiraja Padukone and Subhash Chandra Parija, Department of Microbiology, Jipmer, Puducherry, India, for writing up a review of my 'Thoughts on Blastocystis' available on Amazon for the price of only one US$ or so. The review was published recently in Tropical Parasitology and can be accessed here.

And, for those who are worried about researchers 'overselling' microbiome research, there is a small comment in Nature calling for sound scepticism to be applied to research dealing with the relationship between the microbiome and different types of diseases. There is much to be agreed upon, and what I find particularly important, is to take the reductionist approach where possible - in terms of Blastocystis there are lots of ways to study the impact of Blastocystis on bacteria in vitro, and also host microbiota, physiology and immunology in vivo; ways that can be controlled quite diligently. Also, I think that simple validation of methods applied to map e.g. intestinal microbiota is key. This is for some reason something that is generally being utterly and completely ignored. Why?


Fayer R, Elsasser T, Gould R, Solano G, Urban J Jr, & Santin M (2014). Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine. Parasitology Research, 113 (4), 1465-72 PMID: 24535732

Hanage, W. (2014). Microbiology: Microbiome science needs a healthy dose of scepticism Nature, 512 (7514), 247-248 DOI: 10.1038/512247a

Klimeš V, Gentekaki E, Roger AJ, & Eliáš M (2014). A large number of nuclear genes in the human parasite blastocystis require mRNA polyadenylation to create functional termination codons. Genome Biology and Evolution, 6 (8), 1956-61 PMID: 25015079

Scanlan PD, Stensvold CR, Rajilić-Stojanović M, Heilig HG, De Vos WM, O'Toole PW, & Cotter PD (2014). The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota. FEMS Microbiology Ecology PMID: 25077936 

Venton, D. (2014). Highlight: Not Like a Textbook--Nuclear Genes in Blastocystis Use mRNA Polyadenylation for Stop Codons Genome Biology and Evolution, 6 (8), 1962-1963 DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evu167

Wang W, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Traub RJ, Cuttell L, & Owen H (2014). Location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine. PloS One, 9 (8) PMID: 25093578 

Thursday, February 13, 2014

Announcement of The 1st International Blastocystis Symposium

It is a pleasure for me to be able to announce that Dr. Funda Dogruman-Al and I have started planning

'The 1st International Blastocystis Symposium' 

to be held in Ankara, May 28-29 in 2015 under the auspices of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

We have received very positive responses so far from quite a few of the leading scientists in Blastocystis research expressing their interest in the symposium, and obviously our goal is to be able to raise significant and relevant funding to cover at least some of the expenses related to the meeting. Already, a total of € 6,000 has been raised, but we hope for a lot more.

It may seem like a long time ahead, but we believe that by starting this early, we should stand a fair chance of arranging and completing a meeting that will enable a strengthening of global cooperative networks so as to increase the sharing of ideas, data, expertise, and best practices in this field to the mutual benefit of the researchers and organisations involved. 

The past few years have seen a substantial surge in Blastocystis research in many areas, and so the main foci of this symposium will be:
  • Diagnosis and molecular characterisation
  • Epidemiology
  • Evolutionary biology and advances in genomics
  • Intestinal ecology
  • Clinical significance including potential relationship to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
The symposium will also serve as an initial forum to address and discuss critical questions including: 
  • What is the evidence of Blastocystis pathogenicity?
  • If Blastocystis may be pathogenic, what then are the factors involved? Which mechanisms could potentially be involved in the development of disease?
  • Could specific host factors be responsible for the development of symptomatic Blastocystis infections, and if so, how can these be identified?
  • How can Blastocystis infections be controlled?
  • Is there any correlation between the human intestinal microbiota and Blastocystis carriage?
  • How can novel technology and multi-disciplinary approaches assist in answering fundamental questions concerning the clinical significance of Blastocystis?
We hope that the symposium will attract not only experts on Blastocystis, but also biologists and medical doctors in the fields of clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, gastroenterology, evolutionary biology, and microbial ecology. Certainly, those who have expressed interest so far cover a wide spectrum of these research areas.

Monday, July 22, 2013

My 'Thoughts on Blastocystis' now as eBook in Amazon!

I edited and assembled quite a few blog posts and published them as the eBook Thoughts on Blastocystis in Amazon! 

Buying it will set you back only about one pound, and even if you're completely broke, you may be able to borrow it through the Kindle Owners' Lending Library service. How cool is that?!

Anyway, the book summarises a lot of facts, thoughts, hypotheses and new research data on Blastocystis with a personal take here and there and also with parallels to other areas of clinical microbiology, gastroenterology and microbiomology. I hope you'll enjoy it!

Please also note that our review 'Recent Developments in Blastocystis Research' published in Advances in Parasitology Vol. 82 is also available for purchase in Amazon.


Clark CG, van der Giezen M, Alfellani MA, & Stensvold CR (2013). Recent developments in Blastocystis research. Advances in Parasitology, 82, 1-32 PMID: 23548084