Saturday, January 30, 2016

This Month in Blastocystis Research (JAN 2016)

Three publications have caught my attention over the past month.

The first one is by my Turkish colleagues Kurt, Dogruman-Al, and Tanyüksel. They just published the paper "Eradication of Blastocystis in humans: Really necessary for all?" This title implies that treatment of Blastocystis is recommendable in some cases. The authors appear to acknowledge the view that treatment should be given to symptomatic carriers when all other causes of gastrointestinal symptoms have been rule out, - the popular 'last-resort' approach.

What I think is really useful and admirable is that the authors leave so many questions open/unanswered, despite the fact that they have been "in business" for so many years, representing some of the most avid Blastocystis researchers. It becomes clear from reading the paper that even in 2016, we still do not know how to eradicate Blastocystis from the intestine in those cases where we'd really like to try and do so. Importantly, the authors give examples of data supporting the fact that treatment failure may be due to failure of the drug to reach the parasite as well as treatment resistance. They also highlight the possibility that eradication of Blastocystis by antibiotic/anti-protozoal agents may be due to microbiota perturbation rather than a direct action on Blastocystis. I also very much appreciate the fact that the authors are embracing the necessity of studying Blastocystis in a parasite-microbiota-host context in order to be able to draw useful conclusions on its role in human health and disease.

Das and colleagues just published data on Blastocystis and subtypes of Blastocystis in IBS patients and controls in New Delhi, India. Using multiple traditional and DNA-based methods, they found that in their study material, the prevalence of Blastocystis was higher among patients with IBS than among healthy controls. It is not exactly clear how the controls were picked and what type of study population they represented. What I found really useful is the fact that they not only carried out subtyping of Blastocystis, but also identified subtype alleles. The subtypes and alleles found in the study were very similar to those found recently by Pandey et al. (2015) in Maharashtra, India.  Interestingly, it appears that only two subtypes are found in humans in India, namely ST1 and ST3. However, only two studies from India are available on subtypes in humans, to my knowledge, and so we need much more data to draw conclusions.

The last paper that I'm going to address is one by Zanzani and colleagues. When I read the abstract I almost dislocated my lower jaw from stupefaction: Studying the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis), they found a variety of protozoa and helminths, which is not surprising at all. Neither is it surprising that most macaques were positive for Blastocystis. Now, what really made my jaw drop was the fact their data on the subtypes found in the macaques challenged the host specificity of Blastocystis identified so far: They reported finding ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, and ST7. And so, I had a closer look at the methods used to obtain data on subtypes. I take the liberty of questioning the data, since the authors report using a set of primers for amplification of Blastocystis DNA targeting the SSU rRNA gene, while using the STS primers developed by Yoshikawa et al. as sequencing primers! I guess that it is possible that the description of the methods was flawed (should have been picked up by the reviewer though), in which case I hope that an erratum will be developed and published.

References:

Das R, Khalil S, Mirdha BR, Makharia GK, Dattagupta S, & Chaudhry R (2016). Molecular Characterization and Subtyping of Blastocystis Species in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients from North India. PloS One, 11 (1) PMID: 26784888  

Kurt Ö, Doğruman Al F, & Tanyüksel M (2016). Eradication of Blastocystis in humans: Really necessary for all? Parasitology International PMID: 26780545

Pandey PK, Verma P, Marathe N, Shetty S, Bavdekar A, Patole MS, Stensvold CR, & Shouche YS (2015). Prevalence and subtype analysis of Blastocystis in healthy Indian individuals. Infection, Genetics and Evolution: Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases, 31, 296-9 PMID: 25701123  

Zanzani SA, Gazzonis AL, Epis S, & Manfredi MT (2016). Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). Parasitology Research, 115 (1), 307-12 PMID: 26374536  

Yoshikawa H, Wu Z, Kimata I, Iseki M, Ali IK, Hossain MB, Zaman V, Haque R, & Takahashi Y (2004). Polymerase chain reaction-based genotype classification among human Blastocystis hominis populations isolated from different countries. Parasitology Research, 92 (1), 22-9 PMID: 14598169

Tuesday, December 29, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (DEC 2015)

The potential pathogenicity of Blastocystis is something that has kept me preoccupied for more than a decade. Nonetheless, what I find perhaps even more interesting, is the overall role of Blastocystis in both health and disease.

And so, what do I mean by that?

Well, we just published a MiniReview in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (JCM) with the title: "Blastocystis in Health and Disease--Are we Moving from a Clinical to A Public Health Perspective?" I guess we were a bit lucky to get the paper published as a review, since it's probably more likely to be viewed upon as an Opinion paper, and so it would perhaps have been more suitable for a journal such as Trends in Parasitology. However, we would like medical doctors to be aware of our thoughts, and that's one of the reasons why we approached JCM.

Practically all Blastocystis research has focussed on identifying a role for the parasite in disease. Pathogenic properties have been identified for many other intestinal parasites since long; for Blastocystis, however, we still have no rockhard and reproducible evidence of
  • Outbreaks
  • Virulence-assoicated properties including invasiveness, phagocytosis, or adhesion to other cells
  • Symptom relief upon parasite eradication
Meanwhile, no one has really tried to looked into what Blastocystis may tell us about human health. Together with partner labs, our lab has produced data suggesting that Blastocystis carriage is extremely common, and probably also extremely long lasting. We have also shown that the parasite is associated with certain gut microbial communities and that it is more common in healthy individuals than in patients with IBD, IBS, etc. We have even identified intriguing data that suggest that Blastocystis may be less common in obese individuals compared with lean.



These are some of the most important reasons why I think that research into the public health significance of Blastocystis should be supported. We need to know much about what it means physiologically, microbiologically, and immunologically to be colonised, including 'what happens to our intestinal ecosystem when we are exposed to and colonised by Blastocystis?' Can we identify any benefits from colonisation, and if yes, which are these and can this knowledge be exploited with a view to producing drugs/probiotics that mimic any beneficient properties of Blastocystis? What does it mean to become colonised at an early age vs. only later in life?

In this regard, future areas of research could include studies on the ability of Blastocystis to
  • induce changes in bacterial communities in vitro and in vivo
  • assist in the metabolisation of food items (e.g., short-chain fatty acid metabolism)
  • promote stabilisation of gut microbiota
  • produce immunomodulatory and/or pro-/antibiotic substances, etc.

Happy New Year everone!

Reference:

Andersen LO & Stensvold CR (2015). Blastocystis in Health and Disease–Are We Moving from a Clinical to a Public Health Perspective? Journal of Clinical Microbiology PMID: 26677249

Tuesday, December 1, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (NOV 2015) - Persian Gulf Edition

Today is the first time an Airbus A380 will be landing in Copenhagen Airport, Denmark. Flying in from Dubai, it will mark the inauguration of a runway that was recently refurbished to enable accommodation of a plane of this size.

I therefore thought I'd make a tribute to this particular day by dedicating the "This Month in Blastocystis Research" post to studies on Blastocystis recently published by researchers based along the Persian Gulf. Three surveys on Blastocystis from this region recently made it to parasite/microbiology research journals. The studies are important since they represent examples of studies employing molecular tools for screening and molecular characterisation of parasite isolates identified in regions where such data are extremely scarce. Some of these data will enable us to better understand host specificity, differences in geographic distribution, clinical and public health significance, and transmission patterns.

 The first study was on Blastocystis in Qatar and published in Acta Tropica; it was already mentioned in my September blog entry.

I was lucky to be involved in the second study, which was a study carried out in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, and designed by Ali ElBakri and colleagues. In this study, we screened a total of 133 samples from ex-pats living in Sharjah, subtyping the samples positive for Blastocystis using partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Fifty-nine (44.4%) samples were positive, of which 39 were successfully sequenced and subtyped. The ST distribution was as follows: ST3, 58.9% (23/39); ST1, 28.2% (11/39); and ST2, 7.6% (3/39). This study is the first to provide data on the prevalence of Blastocystis and the distribution of various STs in the UAE. As usual, ST4 was absent, while ST1, ST2, and ST3 were all common in this geographical region; a situation similar to most other regions outside of Europe.

The third study was from the city of Baghmalek in Southwestern Iran, and was published by Khoshnood and colleagues in Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology. This team used microscopy to identify Blastocystis in 1,410 stool samples from patients presumably suffering gastrointestinal symptoms. A very low prevalence was identified, about 3%. This low figure most likely reflects the use of microscopy, which is an extremely insensitive diagnostic method. From Blastocystis-positive samples, DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR and sequencing targeting the (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene. It says in the article that the subtypes identified in the study included "ST3, ST4, ST5, and ST7 with the most prevalent being ST4 (40.9%)", and the main conclusion is that, unlike the situation in other countries in the Middle East, ST4 was identified as the most prevalent subtype.

There are at least two conspicuous situations here: The first one pertains to the rather unusual subtype distribution reported, which appears quite dissimilar to the ones reported from neighbouring countries. The next one is even more odd and pertains to the fact that the sequences (AB915194 - AB915214) generated in the study, and from which the subtype data must have been inferred, do not BLAST to other nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequences in GenBank, of which there are thousands! In fact, AB915194 represents a protein-coding gene, translating into  

S P Y L L S I S T E E S Y T D S H Y Y G E C T T I A Q S I Y H Q S S K S V E A S I W D C V Y Met T L I Y E G V T D L T Y D E M K A S Y T D P V E T L T V L G K Y P G A D I S G I S L D L V F G Y I G R G I P V I S R I N D G R Y V L I V S Y N S E A V R Y Y D P V L D E Q V R K Q

... which is a Clostridium hypothetical protein with a peptidase domain! This may either reflect an error linked to the accession numbers, or it may reflect a situation where for some reason non-ribosomal DNA sequences were uploaded to GenBank. Given the appearance of the phylogeny included in the article, it could easily be suspected that the sequences produced and used were in fact non-Blastocystis DNA sequences, in which case the paper should be retracted. Before this mystery has been solved, the results of the Iranian study cannot be fully appreciated, and the relevance of citing the study appears very limited for now.

The last study highlights the importance of making sequence data publicly available; if these data had not been available for critical appraisal, the conclusions made in this article could easily have been accepted without any further ado!

References:

Abu-Madi M, Aly M, Behnke JM, Clark CG, & Balkhy H (2015). The distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in isolates from Qatar. Parasites & Vectors, 8 PMID: 26384209

AbuOdeh R, Ezzedine S, Samie A, Stensvold CR, & ElBakri A (2015). Prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in healthy individuals in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Infection, Genetics and Evolution: Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases PMID: 26611823 

Khoshnood S, Rafiei A, Saki J, & Alizadeh K (2015). Prevalence and Genotype Characterization of Blastocystis hominis Among the Baghmalek People in Southwestern Iran in 2013 - 2014. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 8 (10) PMID: 26587213 

Sunday, November 1, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (OCT 2015)

I'm actually going to skip the small review I do each month for a variety of reasons. Instead, I'm just going to upload a presentation I gave in Tilburg, The Netherlands, a bit more than a week ago, before attending the UEG Week in Barcelona.

I uploaded it to Google Drive, hoping that it will be easy to download for everyone interested. I have not included any notes, hoping that the slides will be pretty much self-explanatory.

I think there is even a bit of Danish in there, - hope you don't mind! Also, the preview option does not work very well, so make sure you download it.

If the presentation left you wondering a bit and wish for more, why not look up my publications listed in PubMed? They are available here.  Some of them can be downloaded for free.

Thank you for your attention.

Monday, October 5, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (SEP 2015)

The month of September saw the publication of the first data on Blastocystis subtypes going out from Qatar. Abu-Madi and colleagues--who have already been quite prolific in terms of surveying intestinal parasitic infections in Qatar--studied the positive rate of Blastocystis in 608 apparently healthy subjects arriving in Qatar for the first time, identifying a prevalence of 71% as identified by PCR. Strikingly, the positive rate by microscopy of the corresponding samples was only 7%. Three subtypes were idenfied, with ST3 being the most common subtype, followed in prevalence by ST1 and ST2. The study is important for at least two reasons: It confirms the drawback of basing Blastocystis epidemiological research on data generated using microscopy alone, and it confirms the virtual absence of ST4 outside of Europe.

Increased sensitivity of PCR relative to microscopy was also confirmed in a study carried out in Malaysia (I presume) by Ragavan and colleagues. This group surveyed the Blastocystis positivity rate among IBS and non-IBS patients analyzing colonic aspirates, including a total of 109 individuals. Given the data available on Blastocystis prevalence, I was quite surprised to learn that this group failed to detect Blastocystis in any of the samples by microscopy and culture. Using PCR (the subtype-specific [STS] primers were used as diagnostic primers), the group identified Blastocystis in 6 IBS patients and 4 non-IBS patients. Also these figures appear quite low. However, there is very little information available on the non-IBS patients, and since all study individuals were subject to colonscopy, this group of individuals might be suffering chronic and potentially severe intestinal disease, including for instance colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, etc., which would explain the low prevalence of Blastocystis observed among these individuals. Indeed, evidence is accumulating that the more "gut healthy" you are, the larger the probability of being Blastocystis-positive. I noticed that the colonic aspirates were spun down using 3,000 rpm prior to culture and microscopy; this process might have had an impact on cell viability and morphology; still, DNA should be detectable following this process. Meanwhile, we recently showed (Scanlan et al., 2015) that the sensitivity of the STS primers is relatively low, which is why the use of real-time PCR is recommendable for PCR-based screening. To see an example of how the STS primers perform relative to barcoding primers, go here (Suppl Table 2).
Moreover, care should be taken when reading this paper, since I'm fairly convinced that the subtype terminology used in the study is different from the consensus terminology (Stensvold et al., 2007). It says that the subtypes detected included ST2, ST3, ST4, and ST5; if this reflects the terminology that went along with the original description of the STS primers, these subtypes correspond to ST7, ST3, ST6, and ST2, which to me would be a more likely subtype distribution, taking this particular region into consideration, and given the fact that ST5 appears to be extremely rare in humans. 

It's always interesting to expand on the natural host spectrum of Blastocystis. The parasite has been found in a perplexing array of hosts, but some host specificity has been observed. When it comes to animals held by humans as livestock or pets, we know that pigs and cattle are commonly, if not consistently, colonised by Blastocystis with some quite specific subtypes. With regard to pets, dogs and cats have been found positive, but there seems to be increasing evidence that these animals are not natural hosts (see also Wang et al., 2013). Osman and colleagues, recently published a survey on Cryptosporidium and Blastocystis in dogs using sensitive molecular methods, demonstrating a prevalence of Blastocystis of only about 3%. Moreover, the subtypes 2 and 10 were found, and ST10 is found mostly in cattle, and never before in dogs, as far as I know, which could suggest accidental colonisation - and possibly not a very long-lasting one. Similarly, when humans are found to be colonised with subtypes rarely found in humans, such as ST6, ST7, and ST8, it would be interesting to know for how long these subtypes are capable of "staying put" in the human intestine.

References

Abu-Madi M, Aly M, Behnke JM, Clark CG, & Balkhy H (2015). The distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in isolates from Qatar. Parasites & Vectors, 8 PMID: 26384209

Osman M, Bories J, El Safadi D, Poirel MT, Gantois N, Benamrouz-Vanneste S, Delhaes L, Hugonnard M, Certad G, Zenner L, & Viscogliosi E (2015). Prevalence and genetic diversity of the intestinal parasites Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs in France and evaluation of zoonotic transmission risk. Veterinary Parasitology PMID: 26395822   

Ragavan, N., Kumar, S., Chye, T., Mahadeva, S., & Shiaw-Hooi, H. (2015). Blastocystis sp. in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) - Detection in Stool Aspirates during Colonoscopy PLOS ONE, 10 (9) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121173  

Scanlan PD, Stensvold CR, & Cotter PD (2015). Development and Application of a Blastocystis Subtype-Specific PCR Assay Reveals that Mixed-Subtype Infections Are Common in a Healthy Human Population. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81 (12), 4071-6 PMID: 25841010   

Stensvold CR, Suresh GK, Tan KS, Thompson RC, Traub RJ, Viscogliosi E, Yoshikawa H, & Clark CG (2007). Terminology for Blastocystis subtypes--a consensus. Trends in Parasitology, 23 (3), 93-6 PMID: 17241816

Wang W, Cuttell L, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Inpankaew T, Owen H, & Traub RJ (2013). Diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in dogs in different geographical settings. Parasites & vectors, 6 PMID: 23883734

Tuesday, September 1, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (AUG 2015)

I would like to highlight a comment that we published in PLoS Pathogens, - a paper that is free for download here. It gained some attention on Twitter, and it was recently reviewed in the Faculty of 1000.

We basically highlight the tricky situation that we so often encounter in the field of clinical microbiology, namely the one in which all non-fungal organisms isolated from the human intestinal tract are being referred to collectively as 'parasites'. The word 'parasite' has a negative connotation, indicating that the organism exploits the host with detrimental effects on the host. While this is true for some ciliates, for instance Giardia, other ciliates may in fact be mutualists, which means that these organisms have adapted to a life within a host, providing the host with one or more advantages. One such example is seen in herbivores, where ciliates and flagallates break down cellulose.

In the clinical microbiology lab we face different types of organisms when dealing with stool samples: Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica are considered true parasites, i.e. organisms benefitting from the environment of a host, at the expense of the host, and symptoms such as diarrhoea may develop, indicating host damage. Parasites such as Cryptospordium are usually infecting an individual for a short while, with immunity developing. Meanwhile, we also encounter eukaryotic organisms that are known to be able to colonise the intestine for a very long time, - decades, without being expelled by the host; Blastocystis belong to this group. For some reason it is as if the body 'tolerates' the presence of the organism. Maybe Blastocystis is good at evading local immune responses, or maybe the body wishes to 'keep' Blastocystis for some reason and so  developed a way to tolerate it... as I've hinted at before on this blog, maybe Blastocystis may assist us in one or more metabolic processes, for instance, either directly or indirectly, maybe by selecting for or influencing bacterial communities. Indeed, we recently found evidence of Blastocystis being specifically related to certain groups of bacteria, which, if confirmed, opens up for a whole new line of research, including the use of Blastocystis as a probiotic.

I know that this last sentence may sound harsh in some people's ears; nevertheless, most research involving Blastocystis so far has been quite static and unimaginative, and it's about time that food microbiologist and the like start taking an interest in the micro-eukaryotes that tend to be common and stable conolisers of our guts.

If YOU take an interest in this topic, I suggest you look up the articles cited below.

References and further reading:

Andersen LO, Bonde I, Nielsen HB, & Stensvold CR (2015). A retrospective metagenomics approach to studying Blastocystis. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 91 (7) PMID: 26130823

Lukeš J, Stensvold CR, Jirků-Pomajbíková K, & Wegener Parfrey L (2015). Are Human Intestinal Eukaryotes Beneficial or Commensals? PLoS Pathogens, 11 (8) PMID: 26270819

Parfrey LW, Walters WA, & Knight R (2011). Microbial eukaryotes in the human microbiome: ecology, evolution, and future directions. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2 PMID: 21808637

Scanlan PD, Stensvold CR, Rajilić-Stojanović M, Heilig HG, De Vos WM, O'Toole PW, & Cotter PD (2014). The microbial eukaryote Blastocystis is a prevalent and diverse member of the healthy human gut microbiota. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 90 (1), 326-30 PMID: 25077936

Friday, July 31, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (JUL 2015)

This is the holiday version of the 'This Month...' series, and so I thought I'd give you a break from my usual rantings on Blastocystis and instead provide you with some ideas and links to interesting people and resources that could entertain you on your holiday. And where to look if not to social media?

On Twitter, I have come across a few interesting profiles:

Rosemary Drisdelle with the twitter handle @ParasitesAuthor tweets on Blastocystis and many other parasites. She has also has a website, which can be accessed here,  she hosts a blog, and she has written a book that you can read about here.

A colleague of mine, whom I've probably mentioned before, is Dr Bobbi Pritt, who is also on Twitter (@ParasiteGal) and hosts an amazing blog called Creepy, Dreadful, Wonderful Parasites. Here, she weekly posts cases of parasite infections, presented as quizzes. If you're into this, I also recommend visiting a similar site hosted by the CDC.

A recent and appartently popular tweet featuring Dr Pritt was posted by Mayo Clinic (@MayoClinic) yesterday:



If you're interested in the evolution of protists and eukaryotic taxonomy and even enjoy having a bit of vibrant personality added to that, I highly recommend following @Ocelloid, who until recently hosted a blog on Scientific American.

I would also like to recommend following @MicrobiomDigest, @Phylogenomics, @Jopdevrieze @hollybik, just to mention a few if you like to stay updated on research, discussions and hypotheses on gut microbiome structure and function, which is a topic that these guys tweet about every now and then.

If you take an interest in parasitology in general, make sure never to miss out on This Week in Parasitism. I also recommend that you take a look at my Useful Links & Blogrolls, which you'll find in the right side bar (you'd probably need to scroll down a bit). It's been a while since I checked the links, and maybe one or two will not be valid, apologies in advance for that. However, there should be quite a few interesting things there...

A facebook group on Parasites & Parasitology with more than 27,000 members is available here, and there is also a FB community on Blastocystis with more than 1,700 members here.

As I've mentioned before, Brendan Faegre has actually composed a three-movement piece for orchestra on Blastocystis, which can be accessed here. He writes:

The first movement captures the calamity and chaos of millions of one-celled organisms successfully breaching security and going on a joy-ride through my gut, multiplying at a blinding pace and damaging at least 20 feet of my intestines. The second movement reflects the parasitic nature of B. Hominis musically through a continual spreading of the opening motive to new voices; a steady, strength-in-numbers type of proliferation that is eventually joined by the raucous character from the first movement. The final movement is named after the anti-protazoal agent most commonly prescribed to eliminate the B. Hominis from its host, and represents an epic battle of microscopic proportions between Nitazoxanide and the pathogenic, unwelcome guests. Every time this piece is performed, the musical spirits within me are further empowered to fight off the blastocysts and eliminate them for good.

I myself have two Twitter handles, including @Eukaryotes and @Blastocystis, and I post blog posts, conference information, job offers, paper reviews, etc. on Blastocystis, other parasites and gastroenterology to my Facebook page, which is available here.

All of you looking forward to a bit of vacation in August: Enjoy!




Wednesday, July 1, 2015

This Month in Blastocystis Research (JUN 2015)

I started developing this blog more than three years ago. After a bit more than a year, I collected a bunch of the posts, edited them and published them as a book on Amazon. Recently, I logged into my Amazon profile to see how the book was doing, and I was very pleased to notice that there were no less than four reviews of the book, and very positive ones too! Thank you to everyone who read/browsed it.

Blastocystis research is currently a quickly moving field, and I'm please to be able to inform you that one of the most interesting contributions to Blastocystis research coming out from our intstitute has just been published in Fems Microbiology Ecology. The article appearing in this journal was first-authored by PhD student Lee O'Brien Andersen (Statens Serum Institut) and post doc Ida Bonde (Danish Technical University) and describes how Lee and Ida took a retrospective approach to analysing metagenomics data originally generated by the MetaHIT Consortium and published in the often cited paper by Arumugam et al. (2012).

The abstract reads as follows:
Blastocystis is a common single-celled intestinal parasitic genus, comprising several subtypes. Here, we screened data obtained by metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA for Blastocystis by searching for subtype-specific genes in co-abundance gene groups, which are groups of genes that co-vary across a selection of 316 human faecal samples, hence representing genes originating from a single subtype. The 316 faecal samples were from 236 healthy individuals, 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 67 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The prevalence of Blastocystis was 20.3% in the healthy individuals and 14.9% in patients with UC. Meanwhile, Blastocystis was absent in patients with CD. Individuals with intestinal microbiota dominated by Bacteroides were much less prone to having Blastocystis-positive stool (Matthew's correlation coefficient = -0.25, P < 0.0001) than individuals with Ruminococcus- and Prevotella-driven enterotypes. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between Blastocystis and communities of gut bacteria using a metagenomics approach. The study serves as an example of how it is possible to retrospectively investigate microbial eukaryotic communities in the gut using metagenomic datasets targeting the bacterial component of the intestinal microbiome and the interplay between these microbial communities.

As far as we know this is the first study to sift out data on Blastocystis from data originally intended for analysis of bacterial communities only, and in the paper we describe how this was done. We believe that this approach has imminent potential for quickly advancing our knowledge on Blastocystis in a gut ecology context, including knowledge on the role of Blastocystis in terms of impacting/manipulating one or more types of intestinal bacteria.

I have a feeling that this is the first study in a string of similar studies that will soon hit PubMed, and within a year or two, we should be able to with confidence to hypothesise on the relationship between the structure and function on of the gut microbiota and Blastocystis, and–hopefully–other intestinal micro-eukaryotes.

Lastly, it was very interesting to note the article by Paramsothy et al. on donor recruitment for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT; never heard of this? Watch the video below to learn more), recently appearing in the journal Inflammatory Bowel Disease. The study is interesting because it shows that most FMT donors are seemingly ineligible due to a variety of reasons, including colonisation by intestinal parasites such as Blastocystis... Given emerging data suggesting that Blastocystis is more common in healthy invididuals than in patients with gastrointestinal disease, the question remains whether Blastocystis-positivity should be a limiting factor for stool donation?



References:

Andersen LO, Bonde I, Nielsen HB, Stensvold CR. A retrospective metagenomics approach to studying Blastocystis. Published online 30 June 2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiv072

Paramsothy S, Borody TJ, Lin E, Finlayson S, Walsh AJ, Samuel D, van den Bogaerde J, Leong RW, Connor S, Ng W, Mitchell HM, Kaakoush N, & Kamm MA (2015). Donor Recruitment for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation. Inflammatory bowel diseases, 21 (7), 1600-6 PMID: 26070003

Monday, June 8, 2015

Memories from 1st International Blastocystis Symposium

I'm going to release a tsunami of photos from the 1st International Blastocystis Symposium, hoping that they will help everyone involved commemorate this fantastic event but also in order to share a few moments with the rest of the 'Blastocystis community'.

Dr Funda Dogruman-Al giving her opening remarks.

In his opening lecture, Dr Graham Clark summarised the advances in Blastocystis research over the past century.

Coffee break outside the plenary room.

Graham and me with Iranian delegates, including Dr Elham Razmjou.

Drs Shashiraja Padukone and Chen-Chieh Liao trying out the local ney flutes...

Dr Hisao Yoshikawa enjoying a bit of masterclass...

Funda with her wonderful students and staff who helped making it all happen.

During coffee breaks, we had time to enjoy a variety of art exhibitions.

Dr Kevin Tan busy with his camera as usual!

Mesmerising "Turkish Delight"...

Funda and me busy handing out awards...

Chen-Chieh Liao receives the prize for the third-best poster, the book 'Blastocystis - pathogen or passenger', from Dr Hisao Yoshikawa, one of the editors.


Erdogan Malatyali won the prize for the best oral presentation.


I was very honoured to receive a plate from Prof Dr Sacit Turanli.

Some of the delegates, members of the arrangement committee, staff and students.


Funda and me with Dr Özgür Kurt and Funda's fantastic students.

The Clark couple with Funda, Özgür, and Funda's students.

Drs Kevin Tan, Javed Jakoob, Philippe Poirier, Hisao Yoshikawa together with Funda and her students.

A great couple in Turkish microbiology: Drs Özgür Kurt and Funda Dogruman-Al.

The six prize winners (please see previous blog post for names and affiliations).


Funda Dogruman-Al teaching Blastocystis diagnostic methods at the pre-Symposium workshop...

The workshop included both practicals...

... and theoreticals.

Some of the workshop participants.

Turkish food is probably palatable to most ethnicities...

The mandatory Turkish coffee did not let us down!

We were absolutely spoiled with good food and drink along the way... I clearly remember how it was pouring down outside!